Table 5

Known or potential factors influencing perioperative mortality rates

Preoperative factorsOperative factors
Patient factorsComorbiditiesUrgencyPlanned
Severity and nature of illness
Health systems factorsPrehospital transportSurgical approachOpen
Delay to presentationMinimally invasive
Appropriate centre for conditionIntrinsic procedure riskBy specialty
By procedure
By complexity score
Surgeon skillSpecialist versus non-specialist surgeon
Surgeon versus non-surgeon physician
Physician versus non-physician surgeon
Trainee versus fully-trained surgeon
Inter-surgeon variation
Anaesthetic modalityGeneral, regional, local
Anaesthetist skillSpecialist versus non-specialist anaesthetist
Anaesthetist versus non-anaesthetist physician
Physician versus non-physician provider
Trainee versus fully-trained anaesthetist
Inter-anaesthetist variation