Table 4

Impact of voucher programme and free maternity policy on service utilisation and source of care

Period 1–Period 2Period 2–Period 3
D-in-D estimator*
(95% CI)
P valuesD-in-D estimator*
(95% CI)
P values
Service utilisation
 4+ ANC visits0.012 (−0.035 to 0.059)P=0.6190.047 (−0.012 to 0.105)P=0.119
 Facility delivery0.055 (0.013 to 0.098)P=0.011−0.049 (−0.102 to 0.003)P=0.064
 PNC0.038 (−0.005 to 0.081)P=0.0830.009 (−0.045 to 0.063)P=0.733
 Complete care0.021 (−0.024 to 0.066)P=0.3660.045 (−0.011 to 0.101)P=0.117
 Recommended care0.000 (−0.031 to 0.031)P=0.9990.057 (0.018 to 0.096)P=0.004
Private sector market share
 ANC†0.075 (0.043 to 0.106)P<0.0010.025 (−0.015 to 0.066)P=0.218
 Facility delivery0.105 (0.049 to 0.160)P<0.0010.000 (−0.059 to 0.059)P=1.000
 PNC0.110 (0.058 to 0.162)P<0.001−0.001 (−0.067 to 0.048)P=0.744
 Complete care‡0.147 (0.073 to 0.222)P<0.001−0.008 (−0.086 to 0.070)P=0.842
 Recommended care‡0.181 (0.045 to 0.317)P=0.009−0.030 (−0.160 to 0.100)P=0.652
  • *Mixed-effects linear regression model adjusted for child’s birth year, woman’s age at birth, education, wealth, residence, marital status, employment, parity and random effects at the county sublocation, village and mother levels.

  • †Among users of 4+ ANC visits.

  • ‡Proportion of users who received care from the private sector for at least one service in the 4+ ANC, delivery care and PNC continuum.

  • ANC, antenatal care; PNC, postnatal care.