Table 1

Published descriptions of national CKD programmes

StudyCountryCare modelInterventionsOutcomesMethodological
Epidemiological assessmentGuidelines for allocating resourcesImproving healthcare delivery
Almaguer et al 15 16 CubaNational programme for CKD screening and registry; enhance partnerships between primary care providers and nephrologists; improve CKD education for primary care physicians+++Improved screening (33% increase); reallocation of ESRD resources; creation of CME course and care pathways to nephrologyLow
Hooi et al 17 MalaysiaJoint effort among Ministry of Health, National Diabetes Institute, and Malaysian Society of Nephrology to identify patients with diabetes and CKD, and to implement guideline-based care++Creation of CME course and diabetes registry; guidelines for albuminuria screening; increased availability of ACEiLow
Mastroianni-Kirsztajn et al 19 BrazilNon-governmental organisation efforts to screen and increase public awareness of CKD and improve provider recognition of CKD++Standardisation of eGFR reporting and development of guidelines for screening; public campaigns with educational materialsLow
Tapia-Conyer et al 18 MexicoNon-governmental organisation efforts to supplement existing health system with additional screening, medication delivery and self-management education+Development of mobile screening and diabetes self-management tools; online education portal for physiciansLow
  • ACEi, ACE inhibitors; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CME, continuing medical education; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate (in mL/min/1.73 m2); ESRD, end-stage renal disease.