Table 1

Databases, search terms and inclusion and exclusion criteria for identifying empirical studies

Databases searchedCochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Web of Science, Psych Info, Google Scholar, Knowledge for Health
Search termsPatient* AND low- and middle- income countr* OR LMIC OR developing* AND chronic disease* AND mobile phone* OR text messag* OR SMS OR voice AND monitor* OR self-monitor* OR self-manage*
Inclusion criteria Population: Patients with any chronic disease and all cadres of health workers in a public health system.
Context: Low-resourced settings of any LMICs.
Intervention design: The study interventions include two-way exchange of digital information necessary for monitoring initiated by the patient or health worker. The mHealth resource is either voice call or text message based mobile phone communication to improve monitoring of chronic disease.
Monitoring: monitoring of side effects of medication, monitoring of physiological measures such as blood pressure or monitoring of how well the patient feels and offering relevant information and support and reminding them about future appointments or medication compliance.
Study design: Empirical research evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention (any design). The study includes a description of the intervention.
Outcomes: Impact/health and process outcomes (primary and secondary).
Exclusion criteria
  • Studies set in high-income countries.

  • Studies using only landline telephones or computer-based communication.

  • Protocols or reports of intervention development with no published evidence outcome.

  • Studies not published in English.

  • Feasibility and pilot studies with no outcome for the intervention.

  • Reviews and reviews of reviews.

  • LMICs, low-income  and middle-income countries.