Table 4

Association between country of patient origin and isolation of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

OR (95% CI)P value
Togo vs Madagascar0.41 (0.09 to 1.93)0.258
Sierra Leone vs Madagascar1.93 (0.49 to 7.57)0.349
Liberia vs Madagascar2.25 (0.40 to 12.53)0.355
Congo vs Madagascar5.05 (1.68 to 15.16)0.004
Benin vs Madagascar5.36 (2.06 to 13.95)0.001
Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins
Togo vs Madagascar2.38 (0.39 to 14.39)0.345
Sierra Leone vs Madagascar2.48 (0.39 to 15.87)0.338
Liberia vs Madagascar6.46 (0.67 to 62.34)0.108
Congo vs Madagascar6.11 (1.44 to 25.88)0.015
Benin vs Madagascar9.76 (2.62 to 36.40)0.001
  • Generalised mixed-effects model used to adjust for repeated isolates in a patient, potential clustering by field service, age and gender of patient, wound location and hospital location where wound culture obtained. Country is a significant predictor of methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus (overall P=0.002) and resistance to third-generation cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae isolates (overall P=0.009).

  • MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.