Table 1

Characteristics of patient isolates from wound cultures stratified by country

OverallBeninCongoLiberiaMadagascarSierra LeoneTogoP value
Number of isolates3145687461440654466437
Patient characteristics
 Age in years24.6±15.726.1±15.223.0±13.625.3±15.722.1±15.028.5±18.422.5±15.1<0.001
 Male gender1728 (55.8)430 (63.0)203 (46.7)257 (58.7)302 (46.7)311 (66.9)225 (52.2)<0.001
 Ward<0.001
  Preadmission*205 (7.0)96 (14.2)29 (6.3)11 (2.6)43 (6.8)11 (3.6)15 (3.5)
  Inpatient1745 (59.6)297 (43.9)282 (61.2)281 (66.4)307 (48.3)251 (82.6)327 (76.6)
  Operating room233 (8.0)44 (6.5)29 (6.3)30 (7.1)64 (10.1)28 (9.2)38 (8.9)
  Outpatient744 (25.4)240 (35.5)121 (26.2)101 (23.9)221 (34.8)14 (4.6)47 (11.0)
 Wound location<0.001
  Abdomen/pelvis149 (4.7)28 (4.1)7 (1.5)55 (12.5)31 (4.7)12 (2.6)16 (3.7)
  Chest/breast/back106 (3.4)40 (5.8)15 (3.3)8 (1.8)16 (2.4)16 (3.4)11 (2.5)
  Groin/genitalia261 (8.3)47 (6.8)12 (2.6)11 (2.5)51 (7.8)120 (25.8)20 (4.6)
  Head and neck1127 (35.8)287 (41.8)183 (39.7)118 (26.8)259 (39.6)123 (26.4)157 (35.9)
  Lower extremity903 (28.7)201 (29.3)142 (30.8)143 (32.5)180 (27.5)122 (26.2)115 (26.3)
  Upper extremity19 (0.6)81 (11.8)102 (22.1)93 (21.1)116 (17.7)71 (15.2)117 (26.8)
  Unclassified†580 (18.4)3 (0.4)0 (0.0)12 (2.7)1 (0.2)2 (0.4)1 (0.2)
Organisms identified
Staphylococcus aureus 856 (27.2)191 (27.8)113 (24.5)116 (26.4)172 (26.3)166 (35.6)98 (22.4)<0.001
Enterococcus spp26 (1.1)4 (0.8)0 (0.0)4 (1.2)8 (1.7)4 (1.1)6 (1.9)0.220
Streptococcus spp133 (5.8)22 (4.4)13 (4.1)12 (3.7)59 (12.4)18 (4.9)9 (2.8)<0.001
Pseudomonas spp287 (12.5)63 (12.7)52 (16.5)42 (13.0)41 (8.6)30 (8.1)59 (18.5)<0.001
Acinetobacter spp102 (4.4)26 (5.2)15 (4.8)14 (4.3)22 (4.6)17 (4.6)8 (2.5)0.595
Enterobacteriaceae662 (21.0)162 (23.6)98 (21.3)87 (19.8)141 (21.6)83 (17.8)91 (20.8)0.292
  Proteus mirabilis 187 (5.9)31 (4.5)31 (6.7)24 (5.5)38 (5.8)24 (5.2)39 (8.9)
  Klebsiella pneumoniae 139 (4.4)39 (5.7)20 (4.3)8 (1.8)42 (6.4)16 (3.4)14 (3.2)
  Escherichia coli 99 (3.1)37 (5.4)8 (1.7)11 (2.5)22 (3.4)10 (2.2)11 (2.5)
  Enterobacter cloacae 75 (2.4)28 (4.1)13 (2.8)11 (2.5)12 (1.8)4 (0.9)7 (1.6)
  Morganella morganii 37 (1.2)8 (1.2)4 (0.9)11 (2.5)5 (0.8)7 (1.5)2 (0.5)
  Providencia stuartii 22 (0.7)2 (0.3)3 (0.7)2 (0.5)4 (0.6)4 (0.9)7 (1.6)
  Citrobacter diversus 20 (0.6)7 (1.0)2 (0.4)2 (0.5)2 (0.3)4 (0.9)3 (0.7)
  Serratia marcescens 14 (0.4)2 (0.3)2 (0.4)5 (1.1)4 (0.6)1 (0.2)0 (0.0)
  Enterobacter aerogenes 9 (0.3)2 (0.3)3 (0.7)1 (0.2)1 (0.2)1 (0.2)1 (0.2)
  Citrobacter freundii 9 (0.3)1 (0.1)2 (0.4)0 (0.0)5 (0.8)0 (0.0)1 (0.2)
  • Presented as mean±SD or number (%).

  • P values from analysis of variance for continuous variables or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables.

  • *Preadmission locations include sites of patient screening to determine eligibility for surgeries offered by Mercy Ships, admissions tent located off the ship where patients undergo routine health examination including blood draw and microbiological testing as determined necessary by the admission physician (typically a general practitioner), or dental clinics located off ship where patients present for same day procedures.

  • †Recorded culture data lacked sufficient information to classify site of wound.

  • ‡Ten most commonly isolated Enterobacteriaceae species listed below.