Table 1

Interventions used in this review

Risk factor/diseaseWHO ’best buy'Specific interventions
TobaccoRaise taxes on tobaccoIntroduce or increase excise taxes
Protect people from tobacco smokeBan smoking in public places
Enforce bans on tobacco advertisingAdvertising/promotion/sponsorship bans
Warn about the dangers of tobaccoInformation and warnings on tobacco packaging
Mass media campaigns
Group smoking reduction programmes
Individual programmes
Unhealthy diet and physical inactivityMass media campaigns—physical activityEvidence-informed campaigns on activity
Mass media campaigns—dietEvidence-informed campaigns on diet
Replace trans fat with polyunsaturated fatReformulation
Mass media campaigns
Reduce salt intakeMass media campaigns
Harmful alcohol useRaise taxes on alcoholIntroduce or increase excise taxes
Restrict access to retailed alcoholRegulating commercial and public availability*
Enforce bans on alcohol advertisingAdvertising/promotion bans
Cardiovascular diseaseCounselling and polydrug therapy for high-risk groups†Prevention: polydrug (≥2 antihypertensives) if BP >160/100
Prevention: polydrug (≥2 agents) if 10-year CVD risk ≥30%
IHD/stroke treatment: combination of aspirin+B blocker+ACE inhibitor
Diabetes (HbA1c >9%): ≥1 antidiabetic; polydrug Rx if BP >165/95
CancersTreat heart attacks with aspirinAcetylsalicylic acid for acute myocardial infarction
Hepatitis B immunisation to prevent liver cancerHepatitis B immunisation
Screening and treatment to prevent cervical cancerVIA/Pap smear with timely treatment of precancerous lesions
  • *We have included legislative age restrictions on alcohol use as a means of restricting access to retailed alcohol.

  • †Studies on medical treatment were included even if they did not include a counselling component.

  • BP, blood pressure; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; Rx, therapy; VIA, visual inspection with acetic acid.