Table 1

Per-unit cost component values available from published sources in the last 10 years

Source (year, location)Cost components included in estimateConversion cost per tablet (US$)
Most recent conversion cost ‘norms’ published under India’s Drug (Price Control) Order 1995 (2012, India)CC not including distribution or packaging0.0002–0.001
Lowest-priced product in UK, South Africa, India (2016)Cost per unit of lowest-priced solid oral formulation FPP0.0011–0.0043
‘Can local producers compete with low-cost imports? A simulation study of pharmaceutical industry in low-income Africa’, Chaudhuri and West (2015 India)CC including depreciation of capital and packaging, but not including sales and distribution0.0056
CC including depreciation of capital and packaging, and including sales and distribution0.0105
Confidential discussion by authors with large generic companies (2016, India)CC including packaging, but not depreciation of capital, sales or distribution0.006
‘Outlook on pharma operations’ McKinsey & Company (2014, no specific territory)Total production costs, lowest-cost plants (not further specified)0.013
  • CCC, conversion cost.