Table 5

Associations between social capital variables and hypertension detection, treatment and control (among all hypertensive participants) in LMICs and LICs only by urban-rural location, ordinary least-square estimates from model specification including individual controls†, community controls‡ and community fixed effects

Dimension of social capitalHypertension detectionHypertension treatmentHypertension control
 R2 0.0830.1000.0910.0960.0190.023
 P value for difference in coefficients§0.7368    0.89460.7694
Trust in people
 Observations13 33010 45413 33010 45413 33010 454
 R2 0.0540.0670.0590.0690.0120.014
 P value for difference in coefficients§0.7560    0.23630.0936
Trust in organisations
 Observations13 31110 44513 31110 44513 31110 445
 R2 0.0540.0670.0590.0690.0120.014
 P value for difference in coefficients §0.38730.76190.7097
  • *P<0.05,  when testing hypothesis that coefficient is equal to 0.

  • †Individual and household controls include sex, age, marital status, dummies for highest level of education obtained, dummies for household wealth quintiles, urban-rural location, current or recent history of tobacco use, alcohol user, diabetes, depression, obesity, pregnancy, recent loss of employment, dummies for country and year of data collection.

  • ‡Community controls include availability of any public health facility, any private health facility, availability of any antihypertensive medications at a retail pharmacy, number of different antihypertensive medication categories available at a retail pharmacy, presence of electric street lighting, presence of any traffic lights and completeness of paved roads.

  • §P value from Chow test for the equality of coefficients between HIC and UMIC vs LMIC and LIC groups.

  • HIC, high-income countries; LIC, low-income countries; LMIC, lower-middle-income countries; UMIC, upper-middle-income countries.