Table 1

Health system attributes and universal health coverage actions for addressing AMR

Health system attributesActions for addressing AMR
EquityReduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor by strengthening basic public health and prevention
Ensure access to appropriate antibiotics at an affordable cost, including by the poor
Ensure that measures aimed at reducing inappropriate use of antimicrobials do not interfere with access to them by the poor
QualityRegulate the quality of antimicrobials
Include AMR in medical curriculum and training programmes
Ensure that guidelines for treatment of infections take into account surveillance findings
Ensure that advice on antimicrobial use provided to healthcare workers and through advertisements reflects best-practice guidelines and acknowledges the threat of AMR
Increase access to low-cost diagnostic technologies for more accurate diagnosis
EfficiencyAlter financial incentives that encourage overuse of antimicrobials
Reduce need for expensive treatment of infections with resistant organisms
AccountabilityProvide information on surveillance findings
Provide information on appropriate treatment for different infections
Sustainability and resilienceStrengthen public health services and immunisation to reduce exposure to infections
Establish partnerships for management of antimicrobials
Carry out awareness and educational campaigns to change understanding of healthcare workers and the population on appropriate use of antimicrobials
Invest in research and development (R&D) of new drugs and in new approaches for providing effective treatment of common infections
  • Source: WHO. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Asia Pacific region: a development Agenda. 2017. WHO, Geneva.

  • AMR, antimicrobial resistance.