Table 2

Definitions of measurement variables on financial protection of SHI

VariableDefinitionVariable type
OOP payments3 for the latest inpatient service (US$)All inpatient costs paid directly by participants at the time of the latest service use, including copayment, deductible, coinsurance and other payments for medicines and services not covered by the insurance, but insurance premiums and reimbursements from SHI* were excluded.Continuous
The percentage of OOP payments for the latest inpatient service during the past 12 months in the total household† expenditureThe percentage of the participant’s OOP payments for the latest inpatient service during the past 12 months as a share of annual total household expenditure
Total household expenditure included food, clothing, housing, education, transportation, healthcare and spending on other necessities.
Continuous
Medical expenditures for the latest inpatient service during the past 12 monthsAll categories of medical expenditures paid by the participants at the time they received the latest inpatient service during the past 12 months, including OOP payments and reimbursementsContinuous
Effective SHI reimbursement ratioThe proportion of reimbursements from SHI as a share of medical expenditures on the latest inpatient service during the past 12 monthsContinuous
The percentages of medical expenditures on the latest inpatient service during the past 12 months in total household† expenditureThe proportion of the participant’s total medical expenditures on the latest inpatient service during the past 12 months as a share of annual total household expendituresContinuous
Percentage point change (before–after)This variable measures the change in percentage share of OOP payments after having excluded reimbursements from SHI (percentage of medical expenditures on the latest inpatient service in annual total household expenditure – percentage of OOP inpatient service payments in the annual total household expenditure).Continuous
  • Definition of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments: ref 3.

  • *To measure the financial protection effect of social health insurance (SHI) and adjust the effect of private insurance, reimbursements from private health insurance were included in the participants’ OOP payments.

  • †Household only included persons who live and eat together at current residence.