Table 2

Existing and potential opportunities to reduce risk of non-communicable diseases by life-cycle period

1000 days*2–5 years6–10 years10–19 years
Opportunities for action
Improved health literacy and good nutrition before conceptionX
Good nutrition in pregnancy: prevention of poor or excessive weight gain and/or anaemiaX
Healthy pregnancy: adequate number and quality of antenatal care checksX
Zero alcohol/illicit drugs during pregnancy and breast feedingXX
Antiretroviral treatment to reduce HIV-related NCDsX
Vaccination against hepatitis B to prevent cirrhosis and liver cancerX
Protective environment to reduce the behaviour impact of ‘toxic stress’XXXX
Breast feeding and adequate complementary feeding of children 6–23 months and up to 5 yearsXX
Adequate physical activity in early lifeXXXX
Non-exposure to/consumption of tobaccoXXXX
Good quality health services that reach children and their familiesXXXX
Promotion of a healthy dietXXXX
Treatment of streptococcal infectionXXXX
Prevention of exposure to air pollutionXXXX
Responsive rearing practices, positive stimulation, good parenting (regarding diet and physical activity)XX
Provision and promotion of healthy eating habits and physical activity in community-based programmes, child care and development services, preschools, and schools (including through policy, legislative and other regulatory approaches)XXX
Life skills, including social and emotional learning at school; promotion of resilience at school, in families and communitiesXX
Vaccination against the human papilloma virus to prevent genital warts and cervical cancerX
  • *The period from conception to age 2 years.