Table 1

Variable selection

Original hypothesised variableInformation availableFinal variable
 Maternal ageAgeMaternal age
 Age at first pregnancyAge of marriage, age of cohabitation with husbandCohabitation<16 years old
 Literacy and educationLiteracy, years of school completed.Illiterate
 Nutritional statusHeight, weight, MUAC, months of household food insecurityUnderweight (BMI<18∙5)
Chronic (>2 months) food insecurity
 Antenatal careAny antenatal care, four skilled visitsAny antenatal care
four skilled antenatal visits
 PreeclampsiaHeadache, blurred vision, swollen face, short of breath, high blood pressure if checkedSymptoms of preeclampsia (any positive)
 EclampsiaSeizure in late pregnancy, seizure in labourPresumed eclampsia (either positive)
 Gestational diabetes--
Labour and delivery
 Place of birthPlace of birthFacility birth (any hospital or clinic)
 Skilled birth attendantWho attended birth (alone, family, neighbour, community health worker, health assistant, midwife, nurse, doctor)Skilled birth attendant (doctor, nurse, midwife, health assistant)
 Prolonged labourLabour durationProlonged labour (>20 hours)
 Presenting partPresenting partPresenting part not head
 Type of deliveryType of deliveryType of delivery (vaginal, instrumental, caesarean)
 Induction and monitoring--
 Multiple birthTwin pregnancy
Birth order
Twin pregnancy
 Risk of infectionFever in labour, prolonged rupture of membranes, foul swelling discharge, dysuria in late pregnancyAny risk of infection
 Antepartum haemorrhage and placental abruptionAntepartum haemorrhageAntepartum haemorrhage
 HygieneAttendant washed hands, use of clean delivery kitKit use
Hand washing
 Foetal distressMeconiumMeconium
 Birth asphyxia--
 PrematurityGA (months) by LMPPreterm (GA<9 months)
 Birth weightSubjective size at birth (‘very small’, ‘smaller than usual’, ‘normal’), weight at 1 monthVery small
Standardised weight at 1 month
 Thermal careHeated delivery roomHeating
 Delayed bathingTime to first bathFirst bath at<6 hours old
 Clean cord careType of blade used to cut cord, application of substances to cordSterile blade
Dry cord care
 Early initiation of breast feedingTime to initiate breast feedingInitiated within first hour
 Discarding colostrumDiscarded colostrumDiscarded colostrum
 Exclusive breast feedingOther milk given, solids given, water givenAny supplemental feeds (first month)
 Neonatal jaundice--
 Neonatal infectionFever, cough, fast breathing, recession, diarrhoea and vomiting, dysenteryAny infant illness
Respiratory distress (fast breathing or recession)
Diarrhoea and vomiting
  • BMI, body mass index; GA, gestational age; LMP, last monthly period; MUAC, mid upper arm circumference.