Table 2

Summary of policy frames on antimicrobial resistance (AMR)

AMR as healthcare problemAMR as development issueAMR as innovation challengeAMR as security issueAMR as One health challenge
DefinitionHealth impact of AMR on human healthAMR as an obstacle to developmentMarket failure and lack of access to antibioticsAMR as threat to the stability of health and social systemsHealth impact of AMR on animal and human health
MetaphorWar on microbesHealth for allMagic pillsFear of the ‘other’The environmental link
GoalsMaximise the impact for patientsGuarantee access to medicine as a prerequisite for developmentProvide new drugs to responds to growing demand from consumersProtect against the international spread of diseaseEnhance human and animal health
MeasurementsEpidemiology of AMR and health impactAccess to medicineEconomic Investment in R&DEscalating costs and impact of AMR on societyConsequences of AMR on animal and human health
Typical actors (non-exclusive)General public, medical professionals, health systemsNGOs, international organisations, LMICsGovernments in HICsGovernments in HICsAnimal sector, International organisations, governments
  • HIC, high-income countries; LMIC, low-and-middle-income countries; NGOs, non-governmental organisations.