Table 3

Global governance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR): sectors, actors and frames

Human healthAnimal healthFood systemEnvironmentDevelopmentTrade and IPSecurity
National actorsMinistry of HealthMinistry of AgricultureMinistry of Health/ AgricultureMinistry of EnvironmentBilateral development agenciesMinistry of TradeMinistry of Foreign Affairs
Main concernHealth impact of AMR on human healthHealth impact of AMR on animal healthTransmission of AMR through food systemsConsequences of AMR on the environmentAMR as an obstacle to developmentMarket failure and lack of access to antibioticsAMR as threat to the stability of social systems
StrategiesConservationConservationConservation, containmentConservationAccessInnovationSurveillance and
FramesHealthcare and
One Health
One HealthOne HealthOne Health and developmentDevelopmentInnovationSecurity
  • FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; IP, intellectual property; IOs, International Organizations; OIE, Organization for Animal Health; UNEP, United Nations Environment Programme; UNDP, United Nations Development Programme; WIPO, World Intellectual Property Organization; WTO, World Trade Organization.