Table 1

Variations in kidney care worldwide by World Bank income groups (adapted from ISN Global Kidney Health Atlas5)

Low-income (%)Low-middle-income (%)Upper-middle-income (%)High-income (%)
Access to serum creatinine and eGFR in primary care184068
Access to quantitative urinalysis in primary care324371
Governmental recognition of CKD as a health priority59501729
Government funds all aspects of CKD care13214053
Availability of CKD management and referral guidelines (international, national or regional)46738397
Existence of current CKD detection programmes6242432
Availability of dialysis registries24487289
Availability of academic centres for renal clinical trial management12346263
  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ISN, International Society of Nephrology.