Table 2

Effect of the intervention on health outcomes at 12-month and 15-month follow-up (classes 1–6)*

Trial endpointsSummary statisticsCrude change from baselineEffect estimate
Intervention versus Control schools†
OR/difference (95% CI); P value
Control schoolsIntervention schoolsControl schoolsIntervention schoolsBasic model‡Fully adjusted model‡
Biomedical outcomes in November 2011:after malaria prevention education in intervention schools, and LLIN distributions in both groups
Anaemia53.4% (502/940)54.4% (506/931)−9.1%−8.8%1.10 (0.76 to 1.58)0.6161.07 (0.72 to 1.58)0.741
Mean Hb, g/L (SD)113.5 (13.1)114.4 (12.5)+3.3+4.00.45 (−1.03 to 1.93)0.5500.28 (−1.23 to 1.78)0.719
Plasmodium infection
 Trophozoites, all species85.6% (805/940)79.9% (744/931)+6.8%−0.8%0.56 (0.39 to 0.80)0.0010.59 (0.40 to 0.87)0.007
 Gametocytes, all species9.2% (86/940)8.1% (75/931)+3.3%+3.3%1.04 (0.60 to 1.81)0.8870.98 (0.56 to 1.70)0.929
Biomedical outcomes in February 2012: after intermittent parasite clearance in intervention schools
Anaemia45.0% (418/930)34.5% (321/931)−17.6%−28.7%0.56 (0.40 to 0.78)0.0010.55 (0.39 to 0.80)0.001
Mean Hb, g/L (SD)117.2 (15.7)120.5 (14.2)+7.0+10.12.80 (1.12 to 4.47)0.0012.66 (0.92 to 4.40)0.003
Plasmodium infection
 Trophozoites, all species77.5% (737/951)2.8% (25/897)−1.3%−77.9%0.005 (0.002 to 0.011)<0.0010.007 (0.003 to 0.014)<0.001
 Gametocytes, all species5.7% (54/951)0.1% (1/897)−3.5%−8.0%0.02 (0.00 to 0.17)<0.001See footnote§
  • Data are mean (SD), or % (n/N), unless specified otherwise.

  • *Includes data from children from all classes in the 38 schools included in the biomedical surveys; age range 5–18 years.

  • †Children in intervention schools received the educational intervention and an insecticide-treated net in April–May 2011, followed by intermittent parasite clearance in December 2011. Biomedical outcomes are compared with schoolchildren in control communities that had received nets as part of a government-run universal coverage campaign in May 2011.

  • ‡All statistical analyses account for clustering within schools and repeated measures within individuals over time. Fully adjusted analyses control additionally for age, sex, height for age z-score and cluster level prevalence of malaria parasitaemia at baseline (proxy for geographical differences risk of infection).

  • §Not tested because of zero cell value due to incomplete covariate data for the gametocyte-positive child in intervention arm.