Table 1

Summary of participants’ hopes, fears and anxieties, by case study

Participants’ viewsRSV studyMalaria study
Participants’ hopes
 High quality healthcare
  • Free healthcare for participants and family members during trial; provision of community level benefits (eg, boosting health facilities).

  • As with RSV study.

 Research optimism, that is, the research will be successful
  • Positive research results will lead to a vaccine being available soon.

  • Contributing to benefits for future generations.

  • Vaccine perceived as already working.

  • Pleased to be pioneer beneficiary of a ‘successful vaccine’.

  • Will benefit future generations.

Fears and anxieties
 Study procedures
  • NFS safety. Concern about transmitting infections, frequency and depth of NFS could lead to brain damage and future health problems.

  • Worries of severe adverse events and volumes of blood.

  • Fears that infantometer for weighing babies symbolises a coffin.

 Association with KEMRI activities
  • Worries that the research programme isinvolved in devil worship, linked to wealth, free study benefits.

  • Same as RSV study, worries also associated with blood samples.

 Particular sensitivities/confusions in ICF information
  • Terminologies and concepts in consent forms, for example, information about RSV.

  • Anxieties around Information and Consent Forms (ICF) information, for example, randomisation, trial, placebo, compensation and confidentiality.

 FW competence
  • FWs’ ability to perform NFS safely.

  • FW, fieldworker; NFS, nasopharyngeal flocked swab; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus.