Table 5

Role of insurance and medical care costs during hospitalisation (generalised linear models, unadjusted and adjusted by demographic and injury characteristics)

 Cost categories
Total medical costsSurgery costTest/examination costDrug cost
Unadjusted*Adjusted**Unadjusted*Adjusted**Unadjusted*Adjusted**Unadjusted*Adjusted**
Insurance
 No1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Yes0.88 (0.056)0.93 (0.142)0.82 (0.092)0.88 (0.291)0.93 (0.258)0.97 (0.675)0.88 (0.201)0.92 (0.314)
Gender
 Male1.001.001.001.00
 Female1.07 (0.108)1.11 (0.379)1.10 (0.11)0.99 (0.885)
Admission route
 Direct1.001.001.001.00
 Indirect—lower1.01 (0.796)0.98 (0.844)0.99 (0.894)1.08 (0.294)
 Indirect—higher1.06 (0.503)0.77 (0.219)0.97 (0.807)1.07 (0.659)
External cause
 All others1.001.001.001.00
 Falls0.88 (0.067)0.65 (0.018)1.10 (0.253)0.89 (0.344)
 RTIs0.90 (0.080)0.78 (0.124)1.04 (0.598)0.81 (0.04)
MAIS
 11.001.001.001.00
 21.49 (<0.01)2.03 (0.001)1.57 (<0.01)1.39 (0.017)
 31.59 (<0.01)2.53 (<0.01)1.72 (<0.01)1.21 (0.171)
 41.74 (<0.01)1.99 (0.016)1.82 (<0.01)1.75 (0.002)
 52.65 (<0.01)4.07 (<0.01)2.60 (<0.01)1.67 (0.034)
Principal injured region
 Face1.001.001.001.00
 Spine/thorax/abdomen1.24 (0.015)1.19 (0.466)1.07 (0.538)1.52 (0.007)
 Upper extremity1.06 (0.474)1.10 (0.668)0.98 (0.837)1.38 (0.039)
 Hip/lower extremity1.23 (0.009)1.33 (0.198)1.14 (0.198)1.4 (0.019)
 Head1.43 (<0.01)1.21 (0.367)1.32 (0.005)2.19 (<0.01)
Surgery
 No1.001.001.001.00
 Yes1.62 (<0.01)2.29 (<0.01)1.33 (<0.01)1.85 (<0.01)
Length of stay1.09 (<0.01)1.11 (<0.01)1.07 (<0.01)1.11 (<0.01)
Residual deviance (goodness-of-fit measure)634.16258.07755.92550.68618.73402.521033.20646.75
  • *GLM model with cost as the dependent variable and insurance status as the only independent variable.

  • **GLM model with cost as the dependent variable and insurance status as the independent variable controlling for other demographic (age, gender and occupation) and injury characteristics (external cause, severity, principal body region injured, hospital transfer status and surgery status).