Table 2

Use of inpatient and outpatient services, and medicines by the study participants

DMsNon-DMsRatioMean difference (95% CI)p Values
Use of inpatient services
 Estimated percentage of participants with ≥1 inpatient admission (last 1 year) (4.2 to 11.1)<0.001
 Mean number of admissions, last 1 year, among participants admitted1.41.60.9−0.2 (−0.8 to 0.3)0.388
 Mean length of stay in days, most recent hospital admission, among participants admitted4. (−1.7 to 2.0)0.878
 Mean annual inpatient days per person, all participants0. (−0.0 to 0.9)0.053
 Mean annual inpatient admissions per person, all participants0. (0.0 to 0.2)0.008
Use of outpatient services
 Estimated percentage of participants with ≥1 outpatient visit (last 90 days) (35.5 to 55.5)0.271
 Mean outpatient visits per participant with ≥1 outpatient visit, preceding 90 days1. (−0.0 to 0.4)0.108
 Mean annual visits to hospital outpatient departments, per person, all participants4. (2.8 to 3.7)<0.001
 Mean annual visits to a specialist/surgeon, per person, all participants0.71.00.7−0.3 (−0.7 to −0.0)0.040
 Mean annual visits to an MBBS doctor, per person, all participants0.20.60.4−0.4 (−0.6 to −0.2)0.001
 Mean annual visits to a traditional healer/quack provider, per person, all participants0.60.80.7−0.2 (−0.6 to 0.2)0.253
 Mean annual visits to a pharmacy counter, per person, all participants0.60.80.7−0.2 (−0.6 to 0.2)0.273
 Mean total annual outpatient visits to any medical provider, per person, all participants6. (0.4 to 2.6)0.007
Use of medicines
 Estimated percentage of persons taking ≥1 medication97.820.64.877.1 (73.7 to 80.6)<0.001
 Mean number of medicines taken among participants taking any medicines3. (1.7 to 2.1)<0.001
 Mean number of medicines taken per person, all participants3. (3.1 to 3.4)<0.001
  • DMs, patients with diagnosed diabetes mellitus; Non-DMs, patients without diabetes mellitus.