Table 4

Secondary outcomes during the sustenance phase (16 weeks after the end of the treatment phase)

Adjusted OR 95% CI
p Value between§
A-HPF
n=281*
RUTF-C
n=273†
RUTF-L
n=284‡
RUTF-C and A-HPFRUTF-L and A-HPF
At the end of the sustenance phase
 WHZ≥−2 (met definition of ‘recovery’)41 (14.6)33 (12.1)49 (17.3)0.78 (0.47 to 1.34)
p=0.392
1.12 (0.74 to 1.95)
p=0.464
 WHZ <−2 to ≥−3 (moderate acute malnutrition)121 (43.1)129 (47.3)152 (53.5)1.26 (0.88 to 1.81)
p=0.199
1.46 (1.02 to 2.08)
p=0.039
 WHZ <−3 (severe acute malnutrition)119 (42.4)111 (40.7)83 (29.2)0.87 (0.61 to 1.26)
p=0.470
0.58 (0.40 to 0.85)
p=0.005
Change between enrolment and the end of the sustenance phase
Adjusted difference 95% CI
 WHZ, mean (SD)0.65 (0.70)0.65 (0.76)0.74 (0.76)−0.01 (−0.12 to 0.11)
p=0.906
0.11 (−0.00 to 0.22)
p=0.051
 Height-for-age Z-score, mean (SD)0.08 (0.47)0.04 (0.65)0.07 (0.50)−0.03 (−0.12 to 0.06)
p=0.437
−0.00 (−0.09 to 0.08)
p=0.971
 Mid-upper arm circumference, mean (SD)0.75 (0.68)0.68 (0.72)0.81 (0.75)−0.06 (−0.17 to 0.04)
p=0.226
0.08 (−0.02 to 0.19)
p=0.115
  • Three children (two in the RUTF-C group and one in the RUTF-L group) died during the treatment phase and two children (one each in the RUTF-C and RUTF-L groups) died during the sustenance phase. All values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Of the 301 enrolled children, 285 completed the treatment phase and of them 281 completed the sustenance phase. Reasons for loss: refusal (n=3), moved away (n=1).

  • †Of the 298 enrolled children, 280 completed the treatment phase and of them 273 completed the sustenance phase. Reasons for loss: moved away (n=3), clinically diagnosed allergy (n=1), died during the treatment phase (n=2) and died during the sustenance phase (n=1).

  • ‡Of the 307 enrolled children, 290 infants completed the treatment phase and of them 284 completed the sustenance phase. Reasons for loss: refusal (n=2), moved away (n=2), died during the treatment phase (n=1) and died during the sustenance phase (n=1).

  • §GLM model adjusted for all potential covariates as sex, WHZ at enrolment, family structure, age at enrolment, maternal education, religion, caste, site and peer support.

  • A-HPF, micronutrient-enriched (augmented) energy-dense home-prepared foods; RUTF-C, centrally produced ready-to-use therapeutic food; RUTF-L, locally prepared ready-to-use therapeutic food; WHZ, weight-for-height Z-score.