Table 3

Primary and secondary outcomes in the treatment phase

Treatment groupsAdjusted OR* 95% CI
p Value between
A-HPF
n=285
RUTF-C
n=280
RUTF-L
n=290
RUTF-C and A-HPFRUTF-L and A-HPF
Primary outcome
 Recovered by 16 weeks122 (42.8)133 (47.5)165 (56.9)1.28 (0.90 to 1.82)
p=0.164
1.71 (1.20 to 2.43)
p=0.003
Secondary outcomes
Weight gain in g/kg/day of baseline weightAdjusted difference
 Mean (SD)2.64 (3.47)3.05 (3.41)3.52 (3.92)0.44 (−0.16 to 1.02)
p=0.148
0.89 (0.30 to 1.48)
p=0.003
 Median (IQR)1.30 (0.80–3.02)1.61 (0.86–4.03)1.96 (0.93–4.77)
Time to recovery (week) in children who recovered during the treatment phase
 Mean (SD)7.12 (4.54)5.91 (4.03)6.05 (4.00)−1.34 (−2.36 to −0.31)
p=0.011
−1.17 (−2.16 to −0.17)
p=0.021
 Median (IQR)6 (3–10)5 (3–8)5 (3–9)
 Children died021
Adjusted OR* 95% CI
Children hospitalised30 (10.5)30 (10.7)22 (7.6)0.96 (0.55 to 1.67)
p=0.884
0.72 (0.40 to 1.31)
p=0.286
n=243n=235n=249
Children with diarrhoea† at any time during the treatment phase101 (41.6)92 (39.2)109 (43.8)0.94 (0.62 to 1.42)
p=0.773
1.19 (0.79 to 1.78)
p=0.413
Children with ALRI‡ at any time during the treatment phase38 (15.6)24 (10.2)35 (14.1)0.59 (0.34 to 1.04)
p=0.069
0.84 (0.50 to 1.41)
p=0.506
Children with fever§ at any time during the treatment phase162 (66.7)142 (60.4)144 (57.8)0.74 (0.50 to 1.11)
p=0.151
0.69 (0.46 to 1.02)
p=0.062
  • All values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Generalised Linear Model (GLM) model sex, WHZ at enrolment, family structure, age at enrolment, maternal education, religion, caste, site and peer support.

  • †Diarrhoea: passage of ≥3 loose or watery stools in a 24-hour period.

  • ‡ALRI: presence of cough or difficult breathing and either fast breathing or lower chest indrawing.

  • §Fever as reported by caregiver.

  • A-HPF, micronutrient-enriched (augmented) energy-dense home-prepared foods; ALRI, acute lower respiratory tract infection; RUTF-C, centrally produced ready-to-use therapeutic food; RUTF-L, locally prepared ready-to-use therapeutic food; WHZ, weight-for-height Z-score.