Table 2

Baseline characteristics of enrolled children and their families

Treatment groups
A-HPF (n=301)RUTF-C (n=298)RUTF-L (n=307)
Age at enrolment, mean (SD)25.7 (14.1)24.7 (13.9)25.7 (14.0)
Males166 (55.2)181 (60.7)178 (58.0)
Weight-for-height Z-score, mean (SD)−3.5 (0.5)−3.5 (0.4)−3.4 (0.4)
 <−3 to ≥−4266 (88.4)267 (89.6)282 (91.9)
 <−435 (11.6)31 (10.4)25 (8.1)
Height-for-age Z-score: mean (SD)−3.0 (1.3)−2.9 (1.2)−3.1 (1.4)
 ≥−275 (24.9)68 (22.8)67 (21.8)
 <−2 to ≥383 (27.6)94 (31.5)87 (28.3)
 <−3 to ≥−484 (27.9)82 (27.5)90 (29.3)
 <−459 (19.6)54 (18.1)63 (20.5)
Mid-upper arm circumference: mean (SD) (cm)11.8 (0.8)11.8 (0.8)11.8 (0.8)
 <11.576 (25.3)72 (24.2)76 (24.8)
 11.5 to 12.4164 (54.5)163 (54.7)159 (51.8)
 12.5 to 13.061 (20.3)63 (21.1)72 (23.5)
Fever/diarrhoea/cough or fast breathing) in previous 2 weeks159 (52.8)162 (54.4)166 (54.1)
Mother's age, mean (SD)27.1 (5.6)27.7 (5.8)27.4 (4.9)
Mother's BMI<18.5 kg/m2*134 (47.9)135 (48.0)151 (51.7)
Mother never been to school117 (38.9)116 (38.9)136 (44.3)
Mother's years of schooling, median (IQR)5 (0–9)5 (0–10)5 (0–8)
Father never been to school59 (19.6)66 (22.1)69 (22.5)
Father's years of schooling, median (IQR)7 (3–10)8 (3–10)7 (2–10)
Religion of head of family
 Hindu242 (80.4)246 (82.6)248 (80.9)
 Muslim54 (17.9)44 (14.8)39 (12.7)
 Other5 (1.7)8 (2.7)20 (6.5)
Caste (social class) of head of family
 Schedule caste/schedule tribe (most disadvantaged)141 (46.8)134 (45.0)158 (51.5)
 Other backward class (intermediate)101 (33.6)104 (34.9)86 (28.0)
 Other caste (higher class)59 (19.3)60 (19.9)63 (19.7)
Persons residing in the house, mean (SD)5.9 (2.4)5.7 (2.5)5.9 (2.4)
Piped water55 (18.3)51 (17.1)57 (18.6)
Flush toilet within the house145 (48.2)150 (50.3)151 (49.2)
Facility delivery204 (67.8)222 (74.5)204 (66.4)
Family with below poverty line card97 (32.2)100 (33.6)105 (34.2)
Family structure, nuclear†175 (58.1)196 (65.8)189 (61.6)
  • All values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *BMI values not available for 53 mothers: A-HPF (n=21), RUTF-C (n=17), RUTF-L (n=15).

  • †Pair of adults living with their children.

  • A-HPF, micronutrient-enriched (augmented) energy-dense home-prepared foods; BMI, body mass index; RUTF-C, centrally produced ready-to-use therapeutic food; RUTF-L, locally prepared ready-to-use therapeutic food.