Table 2

Synergies between health and well-being, and other goals within the SDGs, by sector

SDGsSynergies between health and well-being, and other goalsSectors
SDG 1—no povertyPoverty results in ill health as a consequence of lack of adequate nutrition, housing, and access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Poor people struggle to educate themselves and their children, are less able to find and remain in a job, and access services that would alleviate poverty. Poor people are also made vulnerable to air and water pollution and other hazards such as landslides, drought and flooding, all of which carry physical and mental health dangers. Their poverty makes them politically and economically unable to escape threats.
For achieving this goal it is vital to focus on better or improved health, reducing inequalities and improve social protection and political efficacy. Bestowing health and well-being assists in addressing the reduction of vulnerability.
Economy; Employment; Education; Early life; Housing; Health
SDG 2—zero hungerHunger and food scarcity result in malnutrition and ill health.
For achieving this goal it is crucial to incorporate the health benefits of sustainable agriculture, food production and distribution. Having access to food improves human health and enables better chances in life, including educational achievement (see SDG 4). As such, patterns of development for food have bearing on health.
Agriculture; Food; Environment; Land; Sustainability; Security; Justice; Health
SDG 3—good health and well-beingImproved health for all countries, communities, families and individuals has implications for achieving all SDGs. Investing in health is both a necessary and effective way to achieve all the other goals.
Health is a major contributor to sustainable development, but much of the economic, social and environmental determinants of health are outside the health sector so there needs to be intersectoral coordinated action. On the other hand, better overall health improves social and economic outcomes.
For achieving this goal it is imperative to increase the provision of and access to health services, guarantee and expand UHC for reductions in mortality and morbidity (eg, communicable and non-communicable diseases, mental health).
Economy; Sustainability; Environment; Security; Justice; Education; Infrastructure; Housing; Community services; Transport; Early life; Planning; Land; Agriculture; Food; Health
SDG 4—quality educationQuality education impacts on the ability to get out of poverty, finding work, being able to afford appropriate housing, access to drinking water and sanitation, contributing to better health and well-being throughout the life span. On the other hand, health is crucial for high levels of educational attainment for all men, women and children, increasing opportunities for employment and living a meaningful life.
For achieving this goal it is important to understand the existing barriers and limits for equal access to education (gender, race, ethnicity).
Education; Early life; Employment; Health
SDG 5—gender equalityGender equality promotes educational attainment, work opportunities and empowerment to be an active citizen and seek better health. Equal access to quality healthcare, sanitation and justice for better women's health as well as reductions of violence and discrimination against women.
For achieving this goal it is essential to look at its links with education, employment and health.
Education; Early life; Employment; Security; Justice; Health
SDG 6—clean water and sanitationAccess to safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and hygiene are essential to the health of individuals and communities, reduces pollution and the risk of communicable and non-communicable diseases (eg, diarrhoeal, vector-borne diseases) and improves housing quality and environmental conditions (eg, reduced water contamination).
For achieving this goal it is key to understand the links with poverty, urbanisation, education, water scarcity and water management, as well as hygiene for reducing the health risks of unsafe water and sanitation. As such, patterns of development for water have bearing on health.
Environment; Sustainability; Security; Justice; Housing; Health
SDG 7—affordable and clean energySustainable energy efforts (eg, clean, renewable energy) need to consider health benefits, alongside reductions in emissions and subsequently in air pollution, advances in urban planning and green spaces, infrastructure, transport and housing which create healthier living environments as well as employment opportunities.
For achieving this goal it is imperative to ensure changes in the urbanisation process and energy demand for reductions in air pollution, and better access to cleaner energy with benefits for health (eg, reductions in cancer, stroke, COPD rates). As such, patterns of development for energy have bearing on health (eg, solar power and electricity and refrigeration).
Environment; Sustainability; Infrastructure; Planning; Economy; Housing; Health
SDG 8—decent work and economic growthEconomic sustainability can only be achieved with a healthy population. Healthy individuals are at the core of a healthy workforce. Improving work opportunities for individuals across sex and age increases and improves access to food, water, housing, services and justice.
For achieving this goal incentives should be given to the establishment of micro and small enterprises as well as microfinance. The role of women empowerment through microfinance depends on improved health, which is the route to education and independence.
Economy; Employment; Security; Justice; Housing; Health
SDG 9—industry, innovation and infrastructureHealth impacts should be taken into account when building resilient infrastructure (eg, roads, transport, housing, building design) and developing new technologies aiming also at reducing health adverse environmental emissions.
For achieving this goal it is key to incorporate health and environmental well-being measures.
Infrastructure; Planning; Economy; Environment; Sustainability; Health
SDG 10—reduced inequalitiesReducing disparities and inequalities in general and health inequalities in particular can result in reductions in morbidity and mortality. An equal society for all with distributive, redistributive, regulatory and constituent policies (ie, economic, education, social, fiscal, energy, housing, health) enhances access to education, services and work, among other.
For achieving this goal it is crucial to take into account the social and economic gradients of health in order to health and well-being.
Economy; Education; Employment; Justice; Security; Health
SDG 11—sustainable cities and communitiesImproved housing quality, efficient public transport, safe roads, walking and cycling routes can be achieved to enhance the resilience of urban places where individuals live and work.
Policies that focus on improving planned urban growth, adequate housing, adequate infrastructures for energy, water and sanitation, access to green spaces in highly populated areas can improve among other objectives air quality, soil quality, water quality, waste management and human health (eg, communicable and non-communicable diseases).
For achieving this goal actions need to focus on planned urbanisation, safe drinking water and food security, health systems especially within the urban poor as ways for coordinating health and environmental well-being.
Infrastructure; Housing; Community services; Transport; Planning; Justice; Culture; Land; Environment; Sustainability; Health
SDG 12—responsible consumption and productionReducing food waste, improving air, soil and water quality has beneficial impacts on human health and the environment. Sustainable agriculture and tourism, and the local jobs these provide can have a positive impact on the local economy and peoples’ lives. This extends to healthy diets and to safe working conditions which are intrinsically part of genuine corporate well-being responsibility.
For achieving this goal there needs to be a focus on the preservation of natural resources/ecosystems and livelihoods of local people to improve the health of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems (ie, green and blue spaces).
Land; Agriculture; Environment; Sustainability; Economy; Health
SDG 13—climate actionReduced vulnerability, enhanced resilience and improved adaptation can provide advances in the health of individuals, oceans, soil, etc. Integration of policies at different levels (ie, community, local, regional, national) is needed for improved education, empowerment and capacity building for all. Climate change carries all manner of additional health threats from new distributions of vectors.
For achieving this goal it is vital to emphasise the role education and environmental education have in influencing present and future culture of sustainability for achieving all the SDGs through bringing together individuals, communities, local businesses, local and national governments and public bodies to work together to allow sustainable development for all forever (eg, better health systems, health benefits from reduced human morbidity and mortality, poverty reduction, reduced water pollution and contamination, food security, sustainable energy and transport).
Environment; Sustainability; Education; Early life; Planning; Security; Justice; Culture; Health
SDG 14—life below waterIf the health of aquatic ecosystems and resources is considered, reduced pollution, protection of ecosystems and resources (ie, fish stocks) are stimulated, better planning is achieved. Resulting in local communities having a critical role in supporting sustainable use of water resources (ie, fisheries, tourism) with benefits for hunger and poverty reductions, human health, the environment and economy.
For achieving this goal it is crucial to incorporate sustainable planning and conservation of aquatic ecosystems as well as sustainable use of its resources as they are vital components of the global ecosystem. There needs to be liaison of efforts for actions between marine and terrestrial ecosystems for sustainability.
Planning; Culture; Land; Environment; Food; Sustainability; Economy; Employment; Health
SDG 15—life on landSustainable use of land and its resources can only be accomplished through policies that take into account local communities and their livelihoods. Sustainable livelihoods have positive benefits on the environment and the health of those working the land. Sustainable terrestrial ecosystems are also source of food which reduces hunger and improves human health.
For achieving this goal it is important to understand that protecting and promoting terrestrial ecosystems (ie, soil) is hand-on-hand with marine ecosystems. Special attention should be given to ensuring sustainable food production for a growing population.
Land; Culture; Environment; Agriculture; Food; Sustainability; Planning; Economy; Employment; Health
SDG 16—peace and justice, strong institutionsViolence, crime and war affect those most vulnerable (eg, children, women and older persons) and poor in society leading to increases in hunger, poverty, ill health. Ensuring peace, reducing all forms of crime, violence, injuries and death rates has positive impacts on the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Implementing sustainable development policies and laws is critical to make societies more just and secure for all.
For achieving this goal it is key to ensure individual and community security and safety.
Security; Justice; Economy; Sustainability; Health
SDG 17—partnerships for the goalsMore equitable societies can be achieved through integration and coherence for sustainable development. Monitoring and accountability of all other SDGs and targets is needed to address and support improvements in all areas of society.
For achieving this goal it is crucial to involve multistakeholders (eg, governments, private sector, civil society) at the local, national and global levels for more open and participative decision-making processes for sustainable development. For the purposes of this framework, health and well-being awareness should be embedded in all aspects of goal evaluation and achievement.
Economy; Sustainability; Environment; Security; Justice; Education; Infrastructure; Housing; Community Services; Transport; Early Life; Planning; Land; Agriculture; Food; Health
  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SDG,Sustainable Development Goal; UHC,universal health coverage.