Table 1

Cost of violence studies in the Asia and Pacific region

StudyCountries includedOutcomes/costs includedTypes of violence measuredTotal cost of violenceCost of violence as % of GDP
Fang et al18Indonesia, Thailand, Brunei, Darussalam, Japan, Singapore, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Republic of Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Viet NamIllicit drug use, early smoking initiation, problem drinking, early sex, teenage pregnancy, self-harm, stomach pain, mental disorderViolence against children including: emotional, physical and sexual, neglect, witnessing domestic violence, child maltreatment deathsUS$209 billion (2013)2 of the region's GDP
Fang36CambodiaHealth consequences (mental distress, intimate partner violence perpetration, self-harm, smoking, problem drinking, sexually transmitted infections, moderate injuries resulting from interpersonal violence) and productivity losses (as measured by educational attainment)Violence against children including: physical, emotional and sexual violence against childrenUS$251.3 million (2013)1.65 of GDP
Fang et al37ChinaMental disorder (depression and anxiety), current smoker, problem drinking, illicit drug use, self-harmViolence against children including: emotional, physical and sexual violenceUS$101 billion1.7
Pollett and Gurr38VanuatuDirect costs (hospitalisation—emergency care, non-hospital emergency care, mental health treatment, child welfare service, law enforcement), indirect costs (special education, juvenile criminality, adult criminality cost), life-long costs (chronic health cost, lost productivity)Violence against children including: emotional, physical and sexual violence and neglectVt 293.8 million—Vt 425.4 million0.5–0.75 of GDP for annualised costs (direct, indirect and lifelong)
6.8 of annual GDP for life-long costs
UN Women Viet Nam39Viet NamHousehold-level direct and indirect costs (out-of-pocket expenditures to utilise services such as medical, treatment, police and legal support, etc, income loss due to missed work, loss of productivity for the household, missed schooling by children); cost of service provision and prevention services (salaries, training costs, operational costs such as rent, electricity, etc)Domestic violence against womenVND 2.5 billion1.4 of 2010 GDP (total direct/indirect costs of domestic violence)
1.78 of GDP for total productivity losses