Table 1

Countries with evidence of Zika virus infection in humans prior to 1 April 2007

Year(s) of sera collectionSource of sample population*Serologic test modalities*
Number of articles reporting on countryGeneral populationPatients at a healthcare facilityNot reportedHIIPNTCFELISA
Africa
West/Central Africa
 Angola38 8321960, 1971–1972XXXX
 Benin6611967XX
 Burkina Faso31 3321963–1964, 1979XXX
 Cameroon45 46 63 9041963–1966, 1971–1972, 1984XXX
 Central African Republic28 32 34–37 40 88 9791954†, 1961–1967, 1975, 1979XXXXX
 Chad8811954†XX
 Côte d'Ivoire21 24 44 9241963–1965, 1969, 1977, 1999XXXXXX
 Gabon66 78 9831967, 1975, 1979–1980XXX
 Guinea-Bissau4311964–1965XX
 Liberia47 6621967, 1981–1982XX
 Mali6611964–1967XX
 Niger6611965XX
 Nigeria5 26 27 29 50 62 66 68 69 84–86121951–1953, 1955, 1964–1975, 1980XXXXXX
 Republic of the Congo8811954†XX
 Senegal22 25 65 87 9151962, 1965–1966, 1970–1975, 1988–1990XXXXXX
 Sierra Leone9311972XX
 Togo6611964–1966XX
Africa, other
 Burundi9411980–1982XX
 Djibouti3011991–1992XX
 Egypt10111954XXX
 Ethiopia74 95 99 10441961–1964, 1966, 1971XXX
 Kenya64 72 76 10441961–1962, 1966–1969XXXX
 Madagascar70 7121977, 1986XXX
 Mozambique8211957XX
 Republic of Seychelles8011970†XX
 Somalia74 7621966, 1969XX
 Sudan2311976XXX
 Tanzania76 100 10431945–1948, 1961–1962, 1967–1969XXXX
 Uganda67 75–77 81 96 100 10481945–1948, 1961–1962, 1967–1969, 1970, 1984XXXX
Asia
South Asia
 India10311952XX
 Pakistan5111979–1980XX
East Asia
 Hong Kong7911973–1977XX
Southeast Asia
 Indonesia8 42 4831973, 1977–1978XXXX
 Malaysia49 89 10231953–1954, 1996–1997XXXX
 Philippines7311953XX
 Thailand8911954XX
 Vietnam8911954XX
Europe
 Spain39 4121977†, 1980XXX
  • *Marked if applicable to one or more studies reporting on country.

  • †Year of article publication for articles not reporting year(s) of sera collection.

  • CF, complement fixation test; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HI, haemagglutination inhibition assay; IP, intracerebral mouse-protection test; NT, viral neutralisation antibody test (plaque reduction neutralisation test or microneutralisation).