125 e-Letters

  • what about animal reservoir of covid-19

    Dear Authors, very interesting and convincing study. It is known that smallpox and polio have no human reservoirs (only infecting Humans) making the vaccine strategy very efficient. However, what about the animal reservoirs of covid-19 ? If such animal reservoirs of covid-19 exists it (highly likely, and proposed as the initial step of the pandemy: infection of an human from an animal carrying covid-19 in Wuhan...) will make the eradication of the virus impossible, except if you vaccinate those animals also or kill them simply...Did you take into account animal reservoirs in your study (the big difference with smallpox and polio used as exemple). Regards. M Maresca

  • What is being disinfected?

    The authors report a reduction in transmission in households regularly disinfecting with chlorine or ethanol based agents, but what is being disinfected is quite vague. Does this include household that, for example, only use bleach in the bathroom? Was this limited to household disinfecting ALL non-porous contacted surfaces? Did this include the use of bleach on laundry? If the authors could clarify what cleaning practices this actually encompasses, that would be appreciated.

  • Age difference and changing marriage age can add to male surplus

    An additional factor of importance in the perception of a gender imbalance is the consequence of an age difference between partners (e.g. groom and bride) and the growth rate of the respective society. If, for example, there was a constant age difference of 5 years between (older) men and (younger) woman, and around 2% of annual population growth, leading to an increase of 10% in the number of births over each 5 years, that in its effect would just counterbalance a 10:9 sex imbalance (around 47.5% women to 52.5% men). In a shrinking society with a similar preference for younger women, the two effects would add and the imbalance in birth rates would feel even worse for men.

    The imbalance would ultimately affect the “market power” of the respective genders in partnerships and/or the “marriage market”. If women actually prefer a partner of similar age, and woman of one cohort can start to pursue that preference due to the “oversupply” of men, this would further enhance the marriage squeeze for men, as even more of the older bachelors would be left out while the women turn to the younger competitors of the older men. Certainly, in the advent of such transition, some men will overlook that effect and thus be left out unmarried once the patterns have changed.

    A gradual increase of the age of marriage may also trigger or enhance that effect: Young women (or their parents, to the extent they are participating in the choice of their daughters partner or life partner)...

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  • “Antibiotic” does the term lead to confusion?

    McKinn et all state in their work published in the BMJ state that drivers of antibiotic misuse in Vietnam are socio-economic than biomedical in nature (1). However, does linguistics play a role as well?

    What is an antibiotic? The generally accepted definition is that an antibiotic is a drug that is used for the treatment of bacterial infections (less commonly to prevent), these agents can either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria.

    However, the term antibiotic, as opposed to an antibacterial, may denote a drug with a wider activity, an agent that is active against any “biotic”. Reading on the origin of this term, it appears that this was the original meaning of this term (2).

    In a couple of recent surveys that we conducted, we identified that many people have this misconception. This was more obvious in open ended questions. In an online survey conducted in Sri Lanka, 190 (93.1%) participants out of 204 stated they knew what an antibiotic is and defined it in their own terms. However, 51 (26.8%) of this190 defined antibiotics as agents that can kill any micro-organism (3).

    In the same group of people, 12 mentioned substances other than antibiotics as examples of antibiotics, including antiseptics with antibacterial properties such as povidone iodine and triclosan, a vaccine (anti-rabies vaccine), paracetamol, chlorpheniramine and cetirizine, domperidone, aspirin, insulin, saline, and plants (cannabis and “weniwelgeta”).

    In both the...

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  • Research Priorities to address TB and HIV in Eastern Europe against a background of COVID-19.

    Ranzani et al. [1] elegantly describe the research priority framework to address the deteriorating TB situation for the mainly LMIC countries of Latin America, which has relevance to other regions. Although the countries of WHO Europe have reduced the overall TB burden (by an average 5.1% annually from 2014-18), multidrug resistant TB rates (MDRTB) are persistently high with the proportion of Rifampicin-resistant and MDRTB among new (18%) and previously TB treated (54%) cases significantly exceeding the global average (3.4% and 18% respectively) [2]. The HIV situation in this region is also dire; 1.4 million people were living with HIV in Eastern Europe and Central Asia in 2017, with the two highest proportions in Russia and Ukraine [3], creating a significant TB-HIV co-infection problem where 13.1% of TB patients tested were HIV infected [2].

    The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted all countries, but acutely on TB diagnostics and treatment especially in high TB burden LMICs. Recently the StopTB partnership examined the diagnosis and treatment statistics for nine countries, including Ukraine, representing 60% of the global TB burden; TB diagnosis and treatment enrolment in 2020 declined by 1 million or an average 23% in individual countries compared to 2019 [4].

    The WHO leads global efforts to prioritise research (and research is a key intervention as one of the pillars of the WHO End TB Strategy) with regional variations [5,6,7]. For Eastern Europe, the global i...

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  • The COVID-19 pandemic as a watershed moment: the importance of improved monitoring of population health needs

    Tamrakar and colleagues have undertaken a welcome, and coherent, evaluation of the completeness and representativeness of prevalence inputs for low back pain used in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study [1]. These types of assessments are particularly important so that users are aware of the uncertainties at each stage of the process for estimating disability-adjusted life years – and even more so for low back pain, which is consistently found to be one of the leading causes of health losses worldwide. They can assist users in appraising modelled estimates in a way that can more readily be triangulated with country-level evidence.

    Issues of uncertainty and generalizability of modelled estimates mainly arise due to a paucity of data. From the perspective of burden of disease assessment this is common across many health conditions which are data sparse, and thus have to rely on modelled estimates on the occurrence and distribution of severity of cases [2]. In the case of low back pain this mainly arises because a large proportion of people do not routinely access care services to manage their symptoms, which is also common for other musculoskeletal disorders and headaches. In both the GBD and national burden of disease assessments, the reliance of secondary use of administrative data (e.g. hospital, prescriptions or GP consultation records) is not an ideal proxy.

    The public health monitoring of individual health conditions has reached a watershed mome...

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  • 'Decolonising’ the decolonising rhetoric

    None of the authors of this decolonising roadmap listed an association with an academic institution in a low-and middle-income country (LMIC). They represented two London schools, two NGO organizations based in Geneva, and one from a former colony—Australia. No doubt these authors share a wealth of experience in low- and middle-income countries but the platforms they chose to speak from exemplify some of the best of high-income country Western (Northern?) educational and humanitarian outreach.

    The critical inequities they cite include:
    • Limiting participation of LMIC experts and community representatives
    • Arbitrarily choosing interventions or research topics with little coordination or engagement
    • Typically placing European or North American ‘experts’ in leadership positions with minimal experience working in the project setting,
    • Basing staff, offices and other resources in high-income countries
    • Funding application evaluation panels without or with limited representation from affected communities or stakeholders in which work will be done; grants awarded without due consideration for partnership ethics.

    A 15 April 2021 Nature Medicine letter reported, “Not one African institution was named in the press release” when a USD30 million grant for assisting African nations in “improved use of data for decision-making in malaria control and elimination” was announced. 1

    Perhaps this BMJ GH editorial is a roadmap for s...

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  • Public health education integral to structural health system change

    Dear Editor:

    Ghaffar, Rashid, Wanyenze, and Hyder invite to the dialogue and debate on the revision for public health education (PHE) as a topic of global importance. They do it from a diverse perspective including the developed and developing economies, and the challenges of practice.
    I want to contribute based on the lessons learned from my experience during a previous pandemic, and my concern on the lack of full realization of the potential of public health methods and knowledge to manage this current crisis.

    Since the Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic, we realized that its management called for work with the economic, educational, agriculture and nutrition, labor, housing, transportation, tourism, and it can be achieved only with established platforms for this collaboration (1). The epidemic demanded for a differentiated care of the poor and those with cultural barriers, the pregnant, of those living with obesity or chronic co-morbidities. That it required massive behavioral change – only possible though effective health promotion functions -, and the assurance of safe settings, medical care (2), and products. That the local action had global implications. It was clear since then the central role of well-organized local public health service delivery, the place for effectively containing the spread. And we saw the importance to constrain the politicizing of the epidemic, by having rigorous, rapid, and fearless exercise of the public health authority....

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  • Questionable reliability of the zinc results

    To the editor and authors,

    We have several concerns about the zinc results in this systematic review

    1. Weismann et al. 1990 RCT evaluates zinc for treating, not preventing infections, yet is included in the prevention meta-analyses (Figure-6).

    2. Farr et al. 1987 reports post-exposure prophylactic and treatment results for two RCTs. Which RCT was used? Why was the other ignored? Supp-Table-5 reports an incorrect sample size and MD rather than RR. The validity of combining pre- and postexposure prophylactic trials is questionable and at the very least, should be discussed.

    3. Turner et al. 2000 reports two RCTs, both had 4 arms. Why was one RCT and two of the three zinc arms ignored? If these arms were included, an explanation for how the means (SDs) were combined is missing.

    4. Table 3 lacks transparency as the studies used in each subgroup are not cited and often it is unclear what data was used. For example, none of the five RCTs included in the zinc prevention meta-analysis reported infection rates for males and females, yet this is reported.

    5. The authors claim there was no evidence of a dose response for zinc used for treatment. Only two RCTs evaluated a dose ≤13.3mg/day. Both used intranasal sprays/gels. All other treatment studies evaluated lozenges. Comparing doses for different administration routes is clinically meaningless. All this analysis tells us is there is no difference between intranasal and sublingual adminis...

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  • Excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic: a geospatial and statistical analysis in Aden governorate, Yemen - A Response

    Dear Editor,
    I thank Ms Besson and colleagues for their useful research into excess mortality in Yemen. They have highlighted effective use of excess mortality as a measure of the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact. Their new technique for determining excess mortality potentially overcomes a major limitation in its normal calculation, that is, the predominance of low quality civil registration systems in many LMICs (1). I would like to offer some comments on this research.
    A key element in any determination of excess mortality is the comparative baseline period adopted (2,3). The authors have selected a baseline period beginning in July 2016, but given that the Yemeni conflict began far prior to this, I wonder why this arbitrary start-point was selected (4, 5). Whilst the authors have also referred to armed conflict intensity data, I do not see its application in the final results. Such intensity data could have been useful in selection of the comparative baseline period, in order to provide a more accurate analysis of excess mortality related to COVID-19. As conflict related mortality in Yemen, as well as mortality related to food insecurity, has varied significantly over the last number of years, it is particularly challenging to compare like with like (4, 5). These changing trends in mortality must be accounted for in order to produce a truly accurate calculation of excess mortality. Further to this, whilst 1st April was understandably selected as the date at whic...

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