Download PDFPDF

Enhancing research integration to improve One Health actions: learning lessons from neglected tropical diseases experiences
Compose Response

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
Author Information
First or given name, e.g. 'Peter'.
Your last, or family, name, e.g. 'MacMoody'.
Your email address, e.g.
Your role and/or occupation, e.g. 'Orthopedic Surgeon'.
Your organization or institution (if applicable), e.g. 'Royal Free Hospital'.
Statement of Competing Interests


  • A rapid response is a moderated but not peer reviewed online response to a published article in a BMJ journal; it will not receive a DOI and will not be indexed unless it is also republished as a Letter, Correspondence or as other content. Find out more about rapid responses.
  • We intend to post all responses which are approved by the Editor, within 14 days (BMJ Journals) or 24 hours (The BMJ), however timeframes cannot be guaranteed. Responses must comply with our requirements and should contribute substantially to the topic, but it is at our absolute discretion whether we publish a response, and we reserve the right to edit or remove responses before and after publication and also republish some or all in other BMJ publications, including third party local editions in other countries and languages
  • Our requirements are stated in our rapid response terms and conditions and must be read. These include ensuring that: i) you do not include any illustrative content including tables and graphs, ii) you do not include any information that includes specifics about any patients,iii) you do not include any original data, unless it has already been published in a peer reviewed journal and you have included a reference, iv) your response is lawful, not defamatory, original and accurate, v) you declare any competing interests, vi) you understand that your name and other personal details set out in our rapid response terms and conditions will be published with any responses we publish and vii) you understand that once a response is published, we may continue to publish your response and/or edit or remove it in the future.
  • By submitting this rapid response you are agreeing to our terms and conditions for rapid responses and understand that your personal data will be processed in accordance with those terms and our privacy notice.
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.

Vertical Tabs

Other responses

Jump to comment:

  • Published on:
    West Nile virus and arthropod-borne pathogens, a One Health-based approach is needed!
    • Giovanni Di Guardo, Retired Professor of General Pathology and Veterinary Pathophysiology University of Teramo, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Località Piano d'Accio, 64100 Teramo, Italy

    Dear Editor,

    The cases of human encephalitis by West Nile virus (WNV) recently diagnosed in northern Italy (Emilia Romagna and Veneto Regions), two of which occurred in elderly patients who experienced a fatal outcome (unpublished data), deserve special concern. This should apply, more in general, to the eco-epidemiology of all arthropod-borne infections, many of which are of zoonotic relevance. We are dealing, in fact, with a large group of viral (Zika virus, Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus, Tick-Borne Encephalitis viruses, etc.), bacterial (Ehrlichia spp.) and protozoan (Plasmodium malariae, Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma spp., etc.) pathogens, a portion of whose life cycle takes place in an invertebrate host (insect or tick), from which the infectious agent, once acquired from an infected human or animal host, will be subsequently transferred to another susceptible, human or animal, host.
    As far as WNV is specifically concerned, this zoonotic flaviviral pathogen showed up for the first time in Italy in 1998, thereby giving rise to a series of encephalomyelitis cases among horses from Tuscany Region (1).
    Culex spp. mosquitoes - namely Culex pipiens - represent the main WNV vectors. Indeed, successful virus isolation has been obtained from Culex spp. mosquito pools recently sampled in Veneto Region (unpublished data).
    Numerically speaking, arthropod-borne pathogens account for approximately two thirds of the biological noxae responsible for "e...

    Show More
    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.