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Williams et al. examined the cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI) (1). Tranexamic acid was highly cost-effective for patients with mild TBI and intracranial bleeding or patients with moderate TBI. In addition, tranexamic acid was even more cost-effective with earlier treatment administration. In contrast, the cost-effectiveness for those with severe TBI could not be clarified. I feel that cost-effectiveness viewpoint is very important for distributing medial resources effectively, and I present recent inconsistent results for the safety and effectiveness of tranexamic acid in TBI patients with special reference to disease severity.
Rowell et al. conducted a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial to determine whether tranexamic acid treatment initiated in the out-of-hospital setting within 2 hours of injury improves neurologic outcome in patients with moderate or severe TBI (2). They concluded that tranexamic acid administration did not improve 6-month neurologic outcome as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. A large effectiveness trial with optimized dosing protocols, a mortality end point, and specific focus on the TBI severity cohorts might be needed to verify the existence of benefits (3).
There have been some meta-analyses on the efficacy of tranexamic acid for TBI, and I recently presented a comment regarding inconsistent results of the association (4). Based on the report by Williams et al., the...
There have been some meta-analyses on the efficacy of tranexamic acid for TBI, and I recently presented a comment regarding inconsistent results of the association (4). Based on the report by Williams et al., the cost-effectiveness/cost-benefit analysis of tranexamic acid for the treatment of TBI by including variables of disease severity should also be conducted.
1. Williams J, Roberts I, Shakur-Still H, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of tranexamic acid for the treatment of traumatic brain injury, based on the results of the CRASH-3 randomised trial: a decision modelling approach. BMJ Glob Health. 2020;5(9):e002716.
2. Rowell SE, Meier EN, McKnight B, et al. Effect of out-of-hospital tranexamic acid vs placebo on 6-month functional neurologic outcomes in patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury. JAMA. 2020;324(10):961-974.
3. Cone DC, Spaite DW, Coats TJ. Out-of-Hospital Tranexamic Acid for Traumatic Brain Injury. JAMA. 2020;324(10):946-947.
4. Kawada T. The efficacy of tranexamic acid for brain injury. Am J Emerg Med. 2020 doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2020.07.048