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Epidemiological transition in morbidity: 10-year data from emergency consultations in Dakar, Senegal
  1. Bamba Gaye1,2,3,
  2. Massamba Diop4,
  3. Kumar Narayanan5,
  4. Lucile Offredo1,
  5. Peter Reese6,
  6. Marie Antignac1,
  7. Vasenta Diop4,
  8. Ahmadoul Badaviyou Mbacké3,
  9. Louise Boyer Chatenet1,
  10. Eloi Marijon1,2,
  11. Archana Singh-Manoux7,
  12. Ibrahima Bara Diop8,
  13. Xavier Jouven1,2
  1. 1 Université de Paris, INSERM, Paris Cardiovascular Research Centre, Paris, France
  2. 2 Cardiology Department, Georges-Pompidou European Hospital, 56, rue Leblanc, Paris, France
  3. 3 UFR des Technologies et des Métiers, Université Cheikh Ahmadoul Khadim (UCAK) de Touba, Diourbel, Senegal
  4. 4 S.O.S Medecin Sénégal, Dakar, Senegal
  5. 5 Cardiology Department, Maxcure Hospitals, Hitec City, India
  6. 6 Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  7. 7 INSERM, U1153, Epidemiology of Ageing and Neurodegenerative diseases, Université Paris-Descartes, Paris, France
  8. 8 Cardiology Department, University Hospital of Fann, Dakar, Senegal
  1. Correspondence to Dr Bamba Gaye; m.bamba.gaye{at}


Background It is thought that low-income countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition from infectious to non-communicable diseases; however, this phenomenon is yet to be examined with long-term data on morbidity.

Methods We performed a prospective evaluation of all emergency medical consultations at a major emergency service provider in Dakar, Senegal from 2005 to 2014. Using standardised definitions, the primary diagnosis for each consultation was classified using the International Classification of Diseases-10 and then broadly categorised as ‘infectious’, ‘non-communicable’ and ‘other’ diseases. Morbidity rates for each year in the 10-year observation period were plotted to depict the epidemiological transition over time. To quantify the yearly rate ratios of non-communicable over infectious diagnosis, we used a generalised Poisson mixed model.

Results Complete data were obtained from 49 702 visits by African patients. The mean age was 36.5±23.2 and 34.8±24.3 years for women and men, respectively. Overall, infections accounted for 46.3% and 42.9% and non-communicable conditions 32.2% and 40.1% of consultations in women and men, respectively. Consultation for non-communicable compared with infectious conditions increased by 7% every year (95% CI: 5% to 9%; p<0.0001) over the 10 years. Consultations for non-communicable condition were more likely in women compared with men (RR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.40) and at older ages (RR=1.27; 95% CI 1.25, 1.29 for 10-year increase in age).

Conclusion Using high-quality disease morbidity data over a decade, we provide novel data showing the epidemiological transition of diseases as manifested in emergency service consultations in a large Sub-Saharan African city. These results can help reorientation of healthcare policy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • epidemiological transition
  • morbidity
  • urban city

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  • BG and MD contributed equally.

  • Handling editor Sanni Yaya

  • Contributors BG, MD and XJ had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: MD, XJ. Acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data: BG, MD, KN, PR, VD, ABM, LBC, MA, LO, EM, AS-M, IBD, XJ. Drafting of the manuscript: BG, KN. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: BG, MD, KN, PR, VD, ABM, LBC, MA, LO, EM, AS-M, IBD, XJ. Statistical analysis: BG, LO. Study supervision: BG, MD, XJ.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval for the study was obtained from the National Ethical Committee of Senegal (Number 4864602).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request.

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