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Path analyses of risk factors for linear growth faltering in four prospective cohorts of young children in Ghana, Malawi and Burkina Faso
  1. Elizabeth L Prado1,
  2. Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez2,
  3. Stephen Vosti3,
  4. Robert Stewart4,
  5. Christine P Stewart1,
  6. Jérôme Somé1,5,
  7. Anna Pulakka6,
  8. Jean Bosco Ouédraogo5,
  9. Harriet Okronipa1,
  10. Eugenia Ocansey1,
  11. Brietta Oaks1,7,
  12. Kenneth Maleta8,
  13. Anna Lartey9,
  14. Emma Kortekangas10,
  15. Sonja Y Hess1,
  16. Kenneth Brown1,11,
  17. Jaden Bendabenda8,
  18. Ulla Ashorn10,
  19. Per Ashorn10,12,
  20. Mary Arimond13,
  21. Seth Adu-Afarwuah9,
  22. Souheila Abbeddou1,
  23. Kathryn Dewey1
  1. 1 Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA
  2. 2 Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
  3. 3 Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California Davis, 2135 Social Sciences and Humanities, Davis, California, USA
  4. 4 Department of Psychiatry, University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Southern Region, Malawi
  5. 5 Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Avenue de la Liberté, Burkina Faso
  6. 6 Department of Public Health, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland, Turku
  7. 7 Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA
  8. 8 School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi
  9. 9 Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
  10. 10 Center for Child Health Research, University of Tampere School of Medicine and Tampere University Hospital, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
  11. 11 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, USA
  12. 12 Department of Paediatrics, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
  13. 13 Intake, Center for Dietary Assessment, Seattle, Washington, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Elizabeth L Prado; elprado{at}ucdavis.edu

Footnotes

  • Handling editor Sanni Yaya

  • Contributors EPL, SAV, KM, AL, KHB, UA, PA and KGD contributed to study design. EYJ, RCS, CSP, JSW, AP, JBO, HO, EO, BMO, EM, SYH, JB, MA, SAA and SA contributed to data acquisition. EP conducted data analysis and drafted the manuscript. All authors critically revised the manuscript and approved the final version.

  • Funding This publication is based on research funded in part by a grant to the University of California, Davis from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP49817), with additional funding from the Office of Health, Infectious Diseases, and Nutrition, Bureau for Global Health, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) under terms of Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-12-00005, through the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA), managed by FHI 360. The findings and conclusions contained within are those of the authors.

  • Competing interests KHB has worked as a consultant and later as employee for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval Ethical approval for the iLiNS-ZINC study procedures was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of California Davis and the Comité d’Ethique Institutionnel du Centre Muraz, Bobo Dioulasso. The study was registered with the U.S. National Institute of Health as a clinical trial (www.ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00944281). Ethical approval for the iLiNS-DOSE and iLiNS-DYAD-M study procedures was obtained from the University of Malawi, College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee and the Ethics Committee at Tampere University Hospital District, Finland. These studies were also registered with the U.S. National Institute of Health as a clinical trial (www.ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00945698 and NCT01239693). Ethical approval for the iLiNS-DYAD-G study procedures was obtained from the Ethics Committees at the University of California, Davis, the Ghana Health Service, and the University of Ghana Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (www.ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00970866).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement Data requests may be made by contacting the corresponding author, and will be available conditional on approval by the iLiNS Project steering committee.

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Footnotes

  • Handling editor Sanni Yaya

  • Contributors EPL, SAV, KM, AL, KHB, UA, PA and KGD contributed to study design. EYJ, RCS, CSP, JSW, AP, JBO, HO, EO, BMO, EM, SYH, JB, MA, SAA and SA contributed to data acquisition. EP conducted data analysis and drafted the manuscript. All authors critically revised the manuscript and approved the final version.

  • Funding This publication is based on research funded in part by a grant to the University of California, Davis from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP49817), with additional funding from the Office of Health, Infectious Diseases, and Nutrition, Bureau for Global Health, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) under terms of Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-12-00005, through the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA), managed by FHI 360. The findings and conclusions contained within are those of the authors.

  • Competing interests KHB has worked as a consultant and later as employee for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval Ethical approval for the iLiNS-ZINC study procedures was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of California Davis and the Comité d’Ethique Institutionnel du Centre Muraz, Bobo Dioulasso. The study was registered with the U.S. National Institute of Health as a clinical trial (www.ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00944281). Ethical approval for the iLiNS-DOSE and iLiNS-DYAD-M study procedures was obtained from the University of Malawi, College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee and the Ethics Committee at Tampere University Hospital District, Finland. These studies were also registered with the U.S. National Institute of Health as a clinical trial (www.ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00945698 and NCT01239693). Ethical approval for the iLiNS-DYAD-G study procedures was obtained from the Ethics Committees at the University of California, Davis, the Ghana Health Service, and the University of Ghana Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (www.ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00970866).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement Data requests may be made by contacting the corresponding author, and will be available conditional on approval by the iLiNS Project steering committee.

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