Table 3

Infectious and medical or obstetric morbidity identified per country and for all countries combined (number of women assessed n=11 454)

CountryIndiaPakistanKenyaMalawiTotal
Number of women*209932873145292311 454
Infectious morbidity (%)
Condition*Definition
 HIVPositive0.30.33.614.34.8
 MalariaPositive0.10.00.210.22.7
 SyphilisPositive0.00.00.33.40.9
 Positive screening for chest infection/possible TBSymptomatic cough>2 weeks0.40.80.70.70.6
 Number of women with CRP measured†1873792298415447193
 Septic inflammatory response syndrome†Any two of the following:
-PR>90 beats   per min
-RR>20 breaths per min
-T<36°C or T>38°C
-Raised CRP mg/dL
15.425.838.245.632.5
At least one infectious condition15.927.040.456.536.0
Medical or obstetric morbidity (%)
ConditionDefinition
 AnaemiaHb<110 g/L61.268.723.941.047.9
 HypertensionBP≥140/90, no proteinuria1.54.81.80.82.4
 Pre-eclampsiaBP≥140/90, proteinuria (PR≥++)0.11.50.40.30.6
 Urine incontinenceSymptom and/or finding on examination1.79.61.61.53.6
 Antenatal haemorrhageSymptom and/or finding on examination5.38.25.20.64.9
At least one medical or obstetric condition62.871.227.141.550.0
  • *Where data were missing for a condition, the condition was regarded as being absent. For purposes of deriving morbidities, % missing was: HIV 9.7%, malaria 5.3%, syphilis 8.9%, screening for chest infection/TB 2.0%, anaemia 1.9%, BP 2.3%, urine incontinence 0.5%.

  • †CRP was not measured at some primary level facilities in Malawi and Pakistan. Only participants for whom a CRP result was obtained are included in these statistics.

  • BP, blood pressure; CRP, C reactive protein; Hb, haemoglobin; PR, pulse rate; RR, respiratory rate; TB, tuberculosis.